College-level learning

Midterms are here again and now that the results are in, students are likely to be more receptive to learning tips than before. A lower-than-expected grade tends to work that way.

So: here we go.

#The bigger picture of college courses

When you take classes, you are expected to master three domains:

a. Knowledge, such as facts and definitions. Often achieved through textbook readings and lectures.

b. Understanding, such as correlations and causations. Often achieved through class discussion and lab packets.

c. Skill, such as the ability to apply knowledge and understanding to a given situation. Often achieved through exercises and assignments.

Knowledge and understanding is tested through exams.

#How to participate in courses

  1. At the beginning of each week look over the week’s lesson. Review the week’s learning goals and look through the readings (textbook, slides, and supplemental reading). Make time for this and calendar it.

  2. During lecture time, take rough quick notes. Focus on being an active listener first. After lecture time, write out (preferably with a pen on paper) your notes and supplement them with your reading. Schedule time to do that the same day and preferably immediately after class. When you are done, you should have a weekly summary.

  3. You can use somebody else’s quick notes if you miss class, but never rely on them for studying. Always make your own like in the previous step.

  4. If you have questions about lecture or readings, write them down and come to office hours. Professors actually like it when prepared students show up and ask questions.

  5. Before lab time, review the assignment to make sure you understand it. Come up with a rough plan to solve it.

  6. During lab time, apply the lessons through the lab packets, be an active participant, and ask questions about assignments and exercises.

  7. Complete and submit assignments before the deadline.

  8. At the end of the week, review the learning goals again and make sure you are good to go.

#Do I really need the required textbooks and do the required readings?

Yes, that’s what the word ‘required’ means.

#How much time does this take?

For Computer Science classes, you should set aside 2-3 hours of additional time for every hour in class. For graduate classes, that can be more.

Example: a 3-credit undergraduate class meets for 3 hours a week (yes, we pretend that 50 minutes is an hour. Roll with it). That means you should budget an additional 6-9 hours for each class.

Does that seem a lot? Yes. That’s what being a fulltime student means.

15 credits = 15 hours per week in class + 30-40 hours per week on assignments.

Computer Science is hard. Get used to it.

How do I prepare for exams?

If you followed the participation guidelines above, studying should be easy. For all topics covered in the exam, review your notes, the weekly learning goals and the assignments. If that all works out, you’re pretty much done.

If you feel that there are gaps in your knowledge, understanding or skill, work on remediating them (before the exam!) If you don’t wait with studying to th elast second and you have questions, you might even go ask your professor (!)

If you need to memorize definitions and facts, write them down with a pen on paper a few times. Typing them on a computer is much less effective.

How do I take exams?

Step 0: Prepare. See above.

Step 1: Don’t panic. The best way to do that is by being prepared. See step 0.

Step 2: Put your name on the exam. Yes, right away!

Step 3: Before you start answering questions, briefly look through the entire test to know what you can expect.

If a question is unclear, call over the instructor or proctor and ask for clarification.

Step 4: Budget your time. Consider:

  • Some questions take more time than others.

  • Some questions are worth more points than others.

  • Some questions you know that you won’t be able to do easily. Keep them for last.

Step 5: Always answer all questions. Worst case scenario, you’re wrong and get no points. Best case scenario, you are correct and you get full points. Most of the time, you’ll be at least partially correct and you’ll get partial credit. Remember: 2/10 is still more than 0/10!

  • Before moving on, check the question and make sure you answer all elements that are being asked! Unanswered sections get no points!

  • If you’re stuck on a question, mark it for follow-up and go on to the next problem. Come back at the end, if you have time left.

  • Don’t second-guess yourself. If you’re not absolutely convinced that your answer is wrong, keep it.

  • Write legibly. An unreadable answer will not get points.

Step 6: Put your name on the exam! Yes, you’d be surprised…

Don’t cheat. At least in my classes, there is only one consequence for cheating, and that is failing the course.

#What’s the difference between graduate classes and undergraduate classes?

In undergraduate classes, you are taught most of the materials you need to master. Readings and exercises supplement the lecture.

In graduate classes, you study most of the materials yourself. Lectures supplement reading and exercises.

In other words: graduate students are guided through the materials by the course design and the instructor is there to help. Undergraduate students are taught and given specific direction.


The new academic term is about to kick off. Here is what I have to say about #ChatGPT and friends

ChatGPT is a tool that can generate content, ranging from essays to computer software. It can also explain in natural language what code does. There are other tools like ChatGPT, and more will be developed. The following applies to all of them.

I am not naïve enough to believe that you don’t know about it, and that you won’t use it. I can make all the rules I want, or put in all the technical controls to block or detect it. They simply won’t work. These tools are here to stay, and they’ll only get better with time.

So, let me give some guidance:

Homework is meant to help you further develop the skills to think through a problem, analyze what is asked, design a solution, and execute that solution. It is a reinforcement activity meant to support what we cover during lessons. Homework is not about the final product. It is about how you got there.

Can ChatGPT solve your homework? Yes, it likely can.

None of the homework I assign is particularly original, so most solutions are probably easily findable via StackOverflow anyway.

Should you use ChatGPT to solve your homework?

Well. That depends.

First: all academic integrity rules apply. If you use ChatGPT, you must tell me.

Second: if you hand in a homework solution, you take ownership and accountability for it. If you cannot explain why you made decisions, or how you implemented certain constructs, you are likely not getting credit (best case). You might even end up in trouble for academic integrity violations (worst case).

Third: if your focus is exclusively is on the final deliverables, you don’t learn. If you don’t learn, your tuition is wasted, and you’ll fail the sit-down written exams anyway.

If you want to use ChatGPT to support your learning by having it give you examples or explaining stuff, or if you want to use it to verify your answers, go ahead and do so. Tell me about it! I am genuinely interested in how it works out for you.

One final word of caution: like anything on the Internet, ChatGPT makes mistakes. Don’t blindly accept what it tells you as the truth. When in doubt, my opinion about the validity or the truth of a statement matters more than what some internet-based thing says.

This article was also posted to Mastodon. Find the post here.

A Teaching Case: A Seminar Course in Accessible Computing

EDSIGCON is the annual conference of the Information Systems & Computing Education Special Interest Group.

Robet Siegfried and I were happy to learn that our paper titled A Teaching Case: A Seminar Course in Accessible Computing was accepted for presentation at the conference. The paper has now been published in the conference proceedings and it is also available here.

Interviewed for News12 Long Island

Rachel Yonkunas of News12 Long Island stopped by my office for a chat about email scams.

Some of the chat was recorded and made it into the news segment.

While none of the points I made were rocket science, it is always fun to be given the opportunity to step out into public view :-)

Also: I’m glad I shaved that day ;)

Interviewed for Newsday

I was interviewed earlier this week for Newsday, a local Long Island newspaper. The topic of our conversation was increased cyber-attacks against local school districts and the prevalence of ransomware outbreaks.

The articl migh be behind a paywall, but it is here.